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LED Lights Basics- A Useful Guide For LED Lights Buyer

Posted by Vikram Singh on

LED Lights- Incandescent Light (Tungsten) bulb of Thomas Elva Edison was once considered the mother of all electric bulbs and lights. But due to the growing demand of electricity & increase in power per unit cost, it has been rendered irrelevant in the modern world. Similarly, Fluorescent bulbs have also lost sheen because of their flickering issue, less durability and higher initial cost.

LED light Basics

The need of the hour is to make use of lights in offices, homes and commercial establishments that conserve electricity, save money and last for a long time. At the same time add a new charm to the décor of your home & bring a peace of mind. Only LED Lights and bulbs possess all these qualities. They are superior in every aspect than both CFL and Tungsten bulbs.

Via this buyer guide, we intend to provide you a-z information about LED Lights so that it helps you to select the right kind of LED bulbs and Tube Lights for your home, office and shop etc.

What is an Led Light?

Light Emitting Diode (LED) is basically an electric component which after connected to electric current emits light. The LED Lights work on electroluminescent principle. They are capable of emitting light in both the visible specter as well as in Ultraviolet and infrared.

Led Light

 An LED Tube light has a chip made of semiconducting material which is doped with impurities for creating a p-n junction. The Charge carrier holes and electrons flow into the p-n junction from electrodes which are having different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls towards a lower energy level and emits energy in the form of a photon.

How LED Lights Work?

The wavelength of the light, LED light Bulbs emits solely depends on the band gap energy of the p-n junction materials.  They have a direct band gap with energies specific to visible, near-infrared or near ultraviolet.

LED Lighting Works

LED Lighting Works Step By Step Guide

  1. The LED Lighting works on electroluminescence phenomenon. In case of electric current, the light falls on the cell and the electrons are knocked out which are then brought into motion by connecting a battery to negative and positive terminals.
  1. Here electric current is provided to a P-N Junction which emits light. The electroluminescence is the emission of light from a semiconductor under the influence of an electric field.
  1. The electrons from N-region combine with holes in the P- junction region. When the electrons and hole combine, energy is emitted in the form of light and heat.
  1. In case of Semiconductor translucent, the junction itself emits light, thus assuming the role of a light-emitting diode. If the junctions are reversed no light is produced and the device suffers damage.

Types of LEDs

The classification of LED lights is done on the basis of their energy consumption and output. The LED lights are further classified on the basis of their colour and design.

Classification of LED lights on the basis of Lumen and Watt value

Classification of LED lights on the basis of Lumen and Watt value

Lumen is a unit to calculate the total amount of visible light which an LED bulb or LED Tube light produces.

  1. Higher its number on the box, brighter the bulb is rated. On the other hand, Watt is the total energy consumed by a bulb in per unit time. 
  2. The LED Bulbs which consume less number of watts per unit time are efficient than the one which consume more.
  3. It is important for a consumer to know how to calculate Lumen value of LED Light Bulbs because Knowing power value of an LED light over a particular period helps consumer count exact saving for LEDs.
  4. If 9W LED Bulb costs 750 and 20w CFL 200 Rs. and 60w incandescent around 20 Rs. That means over a period of 20-years 1 LED bulb will cost a consumer 750 Rs. 8 CFLs 1600 Rs and 40 incandescent bulbs 800 Rs.

Classification of LED Lights Based On Color Temperature (Kelvin)

Classification of LED Lights Based On Color Temperature

The colour temperature of LED lights is measured in Kelvins. This unit is unique for LED lights.  Higher Kelvin rating means the light colour will be cooler and lower ratings will mean warmer colour lights. The Kelvin ratings of an LED light starts from 2700K to 6500K.  The temperature has nothing to do with the Kelvin ratings of a bulb.

  1. Warm White Light – 2700K- 3500K; calm and reducing light; better for living rooms, dining rooms and bedrooms
  2. Natural White Light- 3500K to 4500K; cool and clean; mimics sunlight, good for any location.
  3. Day Light- 5000K-6000K; clear crisp; ideal for security lights, garages, or retail locations and offices.
  4. Cool White Light- 6000K-7000K; good in commercial and industrial applications to foster alertness.

Classification Of LED Lights Based On Shape And Design

1. Miniature LEDs

Miniature LEDs

These are LEDs which are used in television sets, mobile phones, digital cameras, remote control to generate small but effective long range beam of light. These types of LED’s can be used in multiple circuit boards and are very useful in the “ready to fit” mode. 

2. LED Strips

LED strip Lights

LED strip Lights usually mounted on a very thin flexible circuit board with the help of an adhesive coating. It assumes the shape of a long strip with small twinkling starts beaded in it. They can also be used to decorate vehicles, kitchen and gardens to highlight the portion of a space that one wants to bring in the limelight.

3. Reflector LED Lamps

Led Reflector Lamps

To light up a big area, the Led Reflector Lamps are the best solutions. They light the area in uniform beam pattern with less energy consumption.   It is better to use Reflector LED Lamps in places where such items are stored which are sensitive to UV light.

4. LED Spots

LED spots

LED spots are present in markets to ensure best lighting solution. They are liked by people who love bright and durable lights. They are very much useful for big showrooms. It makes easy for salesmen to spot out their products to attract more customers.

5. LED candle bulbs

LED candle bulbs

LED candle bulb is a very popular type of LED lights. For romantic couples deem and warming light of LED candle opens new doors of romanticism, but it only lasts for few hours. They are mostly used for decorative purpose in different manners. Some people install them in gardens, on the ceiling of entrance area or in the big chandeliers. They are available in multiple colours and shape.

6. Corn Bulbs

Corn Bulbs

They look like an ear of corn hence the name.  It is a cloud of 80-180 tiny LED lights which are synchronized for generating bright light. 

7. LED Tubes

LED Tube Lights/ batten

LED tubes are very slim and short than the regular tube lights. They are easy to install and produce no heat. They are mainly used in offices, conference rooms and big homes. The lights are eco-friendly and last for much longer time than regular fluorescent tube lights.

8. LED Panel Light

LED panel lights

LED panel lights include high-grade indoor lighting bulbs which are made of aluminium alloys and used in the form of a cloud. They have a very simple design and appearance with the adorable illumination effects. They come in multiple power capacities starting from 12W, 18W to 85W.

9. Home Décor Lights

Home Décor Lights

On special occasions like wedding, birthdays, parties and anniversaries, home décor lights can’t be overlooked. The decorative Led Tube Lights illuminate your home and office perfectly during festival times Diwali, Christmas, New Year and Eid. LED Tube Lights come in a range of colours ranging from Low Temperature for Cool light and high temperature for warm light.

    Diverse Uses & Types Of LED Lights   

    1. LED’s are used in watches, flashlights, calculators, semaphores, remote controls, DVD, TVs and other places that need wireless control. But their primary purpose was to replace incandescent and neon lights.
    2. The LED lights can also be used for spotlighting, indoor & outdoor lighting, street lighting, garden lighting, floodlights and other general purposes.
    3. The only flaw of LED lights or LED Tube lights is that they are temperature dependent and a consumer is always suggested to select LED lights that function well in the temperature of the place he or she lives in. They can overheat if the outside temperature is high. And when it is cloud outside, that may also affect the light.

    How Led Lights Came Into Existence And Their Evolution

    Way back in 1907, Henry Joseph Round, a British scientist who was then an experimenter in Marconi labs noticed it the first time that is a potential of 10 volts is applied to silicon carbide crystal, the element emits yellow light.  This was a first step stone towards the invention of LED lights. 

    As the time passed, more and more experimenters became interested in this subject. In 1927, Russian experimenter Oleg Vladimirovich Losev proposed a working theory “Luminous carborundum detector and detection effect and oscillations with crystals“.

    emitted LED light

     But there was no utilization of this theory until 1955, when Rubin Braunstein, a researcher reported it the first time that simple diode emits infrared light when it is connected to a current. The experiments followed and in the subsequent decades, one after another researcher revealed new facts about light emitting diodes. 

    In 1962, Texas Instruments received a patent for infrared LED. The first light emitting diode was developed in the same year by Nick Holonyak Jr, who was then an employee in General Electrics.

    The LED developed by him emitted light in the visible part of the frequency range hence it came to known as Red LED.  The research continued and in 1976, Thomas P. Pearsall developed high brightness light-emitting diode.

    The first blue Led Light was invented by researcher Shuji Nakamura in 1979 that was in use until 1994.  But it was considered too expensive for the commercials. The price of first Light-emitting Diode was some US$200 per unit.  Hence they were only used in highly professional laboratory equipment and few corporate offices and hotels.

     Evolution Of LED Lights Into Super Luminescent White LED Lights

    From 1994, LED Lights have undergone a massive evolution. Today it is as easy as a pie to fetch LED lights of any desired colour shape or design from the market. The markets are flooded with all types of LED lights, ranging from small to big bulbs and lights.

    White LED Lights

    The blue LEDs dominated till 1994 because of their high energy efficiency quality.  Then came the White LEDs.

     In White LEDs, YAG phosphor coating absorbs blue light and produces yellow fluorescent light. When the blue and yellow light combines, the light appears white to eyes.  This is the basic principle on which on a white LED light or bulb functions.

     When researchers tried other phosphors, instead of yellow, the colour of the light became green and red. And when these two colours combined with blue, the light became ultra white.  It was superior for illumination in terms of colour rendering.    Going by this principle, there seems more scope of improvisation in light output per LED.  

     LED White Lights Versus Incandescent Bulbs   

     There are several inherent disadvantages of an incandescent bulb. It is just an electric light that is still used in many homes and offices in the night time because for an average income.

    LED White Lights Versus Incandescent Bulbs

    1. Though the cost of the bulb is very low in comparison to LED and other lights, it consumes 80 times more electricity than other lights. So it will be not right in any sense to call a tungsten bulb cost effective.
    1. The efficiency of tungsten bulb is too less than CFL and LED lights. On the other hand, they are available in very few designs and last for a very short time.
    1. On the other hand, when we calculate its health benefits, we are able to estimate that there is not even one positive effect of tungsten light. It increases the temperature of the room and causes irritation in eyes.

    LED Lights Versus Florescent Lights

    Though fluorescent lights are cost effective, energy efficient, durable and attractive than Tungsten bulbs they too have some cons that make it important to replace them with highly cost-effective and energy efficient lights.

    LED Lights Versus Florescent Lights

    1. Fluorescents lights are in the market for decades. In developing countries like India, Pakistan and Bangladesh where 40-45 percent people are living in poverty, people are still using inefficient incandescent lights because they are not able to afford florescent lights because of their high initial cost.
    2. It is very high in efficiency than conventional lighting options and 7-8 times higher than an incandescent bulb. But it is really difficult for a poor family in India to afford florescent lights for home.
    3. All CFL lights are not dimmable hence can’t be adjusted to a desired level of brightness by using a dimmer.
    4. Fluorescent lamps equipped with magnetic ballast makes a buzzing sound which annoys the mind terribly particularly when one is trying to concentrate on something.
    5. One more common problem with CFLs is flickering which also annoys the mind.

    Harmful Effects Of CFL Lights

    1. Moreover, researchers have revealed some negative effects of CFL bulbs and one among them is migraine headaches. According to a recent report published in a U.K. newspaper “The Daily Mail”, people who use fluorescent lighting might see an increase in their migraines.
    2. The use of CFL can also lead to mercury poisoning as the gas used in these lights is mercury. When a CFL Bulb breaks, the mercury fumes spread in the air and can be inhaled by the people living in that space. And the person who handles the broken bulb without protection has more chances of mercury poisoning than others. 
    3. Though the amount of mercury used in CFL Bulbs is small the threat of mercury poisoning is there and complications can be very real. Mercury poisoning can lead to vomiting, swollen gums, metallic taste and diarrhea like problems and in more serious cases even brain damage and kidney failure.

    Advantages of Led Bulb over CFL & Incandescent Bulbs

    Though energy inefficiency and durability were two important factors which prompted scientists to upgrade Tungsten to CFL and then CFL to LED Bulb and Light, there were many other reasons what made it to the invention of LED lights and Bulbs.

    Advantages of Led Bulb

    1. If currently there is a far better replacement for incandescent and CFL Bulbs that is LED bulbs and Lights. Be it energy efficiency, initial cost, positive effects on health, dimming, home décor, comfort or durability, LED lights and Bulbs are far superior in every aspect than the conventional Tungsten and  CFL bulbs.
    2. One of those was to make electric lights as the part of your home and office décor besides conserving electricity and loosening burden on the mains of your house.
    3. The energy efficiency of LED Lights saves consumer both money and time. The saved energy is used to run other electrical appliances in the homes and offices.


    LED Lights consume 9 times less energy than the conventional lights and still offer supremely bright light.  So why won’t a consumer opt for LED bulbs and lights over other lights available on the market?   From compact capsule styles to on-trend filament bulbs, you have a very wide choice available to select an LED light of your favorite color, desired wattage brightness, durability, shape and design.  Hope this buyer guide helps you to select the right kind of LED lights and bulbs for your home, office and shop etc. you can purchase LED Lights online as well. There are sites that sell LED Lights Online Led lights prices vary according to the size and capacity. They can also vary with the design and shape.

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    • Very nice and look

      Mukesh on

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